Getting influenza raises heart attack risk, especially in seniors: study

Researchers looked at 20,000 adult cases of laboratory-confirmed influenza from 2009 to 2014

Having the flu significantly raises the risk of having a heart attack, especially among those aged 65 and older, an Ontario study suggests.

“What we found is that you’re six times more likely to have a heart attack during the week after being diagnosed with influenza, compared with a year before or a year after the infection,” said Dr. Jeff Kwong, lead author of the study published Wednesday in the New England Journal of Medicine.

“What we were also surprised about is that we found that there was an increased risk with other respiratory viruses as well,” said Kwong, a scientist at Public Health Ontario and the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences in Toronto.

Infection with an influenza virus appears to have the most profound effect, but the risk of having a heart attack was also somewhat increased by such pathogens as respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and cold-causing adenoviruses and rhinoviruses, he said.

To conduct the study, researchers looked at almost 20,000 adult cases of laboratory-confirmed influenza infections from 2009 to 2014 and identified 332 patients who were hospitalized for a heart attack within one year before and one year after their flu diagnosis.

Of these, 20 patients had a heart attack within seven days of their flu diagnosis, said Kwong, noting that about 75 per cent were aged 65 and older and most had some form of cardiovascular disease, such as high blood pressure. Roughly 25 per cent had experienced a previous heart attack.

About one-third of the patients with influenza-associated heart attacks died.

Kwong said 31 per cent of the patients who experienced a heart attack had not been vaccinated against seasonal flu, although he cautioned the connection “requires a bit of careful interpretation.

“We know that influenza vaccines aren’t 100 per cent effective. Some people who get vaccinated are still going to get influenza,” he said.

“If you got vaccinated and you still got influenza, you were still at an increased risk of a heart attack at the same level as those who didn’t get vaccinated and got influenza.

“That doesn’t mean it’s not worth getting vaccinated,” Kwong stressed. “It just means that it only works (to reduce the risk of a heart attack) by preventing infection.”

Studies show the protective antibody response to vaccines mounted by seniors is not as robust as it is for younger people, due to the immune system weakening with age.

Even so, people aged 65-plus — as well as those with underlying medical conditions or compromised immune systems — are urged to get the flu shot as they are more susceptible to complications if they do come down with the infection.

That includes people with cardiovascular disease, said Kwong.

Cardiologist Dr. Thais Coutinho, head of prevention and rehabilitation at the Ottawa Heart Institute, said the findings confirm what previous research has suggested about the link between influenza and heart attacks, but this study found ”even a greater magnitude of risk.

“It’s really showing that around the time of the influenza season, as the rates of influenza go up, the rate of heart attacks go up too,” said Coutinho, who was not involved in the study.

While it’s not known exactly how being sick with the flu triggers a heart attack in some people, she said there are a number of potential causes.

As the body’s immune system fights the infection, it gives rise to an inflammatory response not only in the respiratory tract but throughout the body, increasing demands on the heart to pump more oxygen-rich blood. That imbalance between demand and supply can tip a patient over the edge into a heart attack, she said.

Inflammation can also rupture built-up plaque in the coronary arteries, causing blood clots to form and clog the vessels, leading to a heart attack. The inflammatory response can also make platelets stickier and more likely to clot, and arteries to become narrowed, further impairing blood flow.

“So all of these things are possibilities through which influenza may lead to a heart attack,” she said, adding that the study’s findings provide a good opportunity to send the message for people to get the flu shot.

And while the vaccine is far from perfect, Coutinho concedes, ”any protection is better than no protection.”

Sheryl Ubelacker, The Canadian Press

Like us on Facebook and follow us on Twitter.

Just Posted

Jayda Monilaws raises over $7,000 of cupcakes for Central Alberta Humane Society

This is the most the 10-year-old Red Deerian has raised so far

PHOTOS: Alberta male team takes silver in Winter Games relay speed skating

Alberta was close behind Quebec in the team relay speed skating finals

WATCH: Pet therapy brings calmness to Winter Games athletes

Canada Winter Games in Red Deer continue on until March 2nd

Jayda Monilaws is selling cupcakes again for Central Alberta Humane Society

The 10-year-old Red Deerian is selling cupcakes today from 10 a.m. to 6 p.m.

Alberta was crowned champions in Wheelchair Basketball at Canada Winter Games

Ontario won silver while Quebec took home the bronze medal

National Energy Board approves Trans Mountain pipeline again

Next step includes cabinet voting on the controversial expansion

R. Kelly charged with 10 counts of sexual abuse

R&B star has been accused of sexual misconduct involving women and underage girls for years

Child advocacy centre raising funds through Dream Home Lottery

The child advocacy centre in Red Deer uses its resources to help kids all over Central Alberta

Trudeau tells Canadians to listen to clerk in SNC-Lavalin matter

Privy Council clerk Michael Wernick delivered a blunt assessment at the House of Commons justice

Mueller report looming, new attorney general in hot seat

Robert Mueller is required to produce a confidential report to pursue or decline prosecutions

B.C. woman shares story of abuse with church officials ahead of Vatican summit

Leona Huggins was the only Canadian in the gathering ahead of a historic summit at the Vatican

Sylvan Lake’s Megan Cressey misses Freestyle Skiing Big Air podium

Alberta’s Jake Sandstorm captured silver in the men Freestyle Skiing Big Air contest

Why do zebras have stripes? Perhaps to dazzle away flies

Researchers from University of Bristol look into why zebras have stripes

Poll: More voters believe Canada doing worse under Trudeau government

22 per cent believed the country is doing better and 27 per cent said things are the same

Most Read